Symptoms of diseases of the thymus gland in adults
Diseases and pathology related to the immune system, are very dangerous, because it is necessary to be able quickly to identify them. Symptoms of disease of the thymus is not always easy to recognize, but it’s important to do that, because inflammation of the thymus gland, as well as other pathologies, can pose a serious health threat.
In adults the thymus gland (the thymus or thymus) is a very important part of the immune system, where is the development of a number of essential body hormones and maturation of T-lymphocytes. This gland is a lobed body, a small gray-pink in color and is located in the upper region of the sternum right behind the rib cage.
At the time of the child’s birth, the thymus sizes of approximately 4 to 5 inches in length and width and around 0.5-0.6 inches thick and weighs approximately 14-15 grams. The child grows the thymus gland continues to grow and at the time of puberty (12-14 years old) reaches its maximum development – mass to 40 grams and with a length up to 16 inches. Then begins a period of gradual atrophy of this organ, and in old age this body is scarcely distinguishable from surrounding fatty tissue and not to exceed 5-6 inches in length.
Diseases of the thymus gland in adults
The thymus of adults may be subject to various pathological processes, the etiology of which is not always known and understood. Often diseases of the thymus gland occur without specific symptoms and can only be detected by timely examination.
Not necessarily talking about the problems with the thymus gland, but indicate the need for examination of factors such as:
- Susceptibility to common autoimmune and infectious diseases and the difficult recovery after.
- Quickly accumulated muscle fatigue.
- The weakness and fatigue.
- Problems with the respiratory system.
- Swollen lymph nodes and tonsils.
- Frequent and long feeling of heaviness in the eyes.
Such cavitary education in the thymus most often manifest in young people, but it is possible their appearance in older age. In the initial stages the size of the cyst only a few millimeters, in the future they can grow up to 4-5 cm, there is a General increase of the thymus. As a rule, the development of education are asymptomatic and are diagnosed only on the results of the survey (in particular, x-ray). The main danger of the cyst – hemorrhage when rupture.
Thymic hyperplasia or hypertrophy – abnormal increase in size of the thymus gland that occurs in cancer in response to radiation and chemotherapy, steroids, severe burns or injury. The symptoms are also quite common: respiratory disorders, including shortness of breath and cough, drop in blood pressure, prominent veins on the front of the body in the chest area, exposure to communicable infections. Often there are associated diseases: scleroderma, myasthenia gravis, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, graves ‘ disease.
This disease means the appearance of tumor formations that can be both benign and malignant type. Almost never occur in young people and occur mainly in people older than 40 years. Pronounced symptoms may not be present, but pressing on the area of the thymus often have pain, shortness of breath and difficulty breathing until the appearance of the cyanotic tint of the face.
How to identify problems with the thymus gland
The main method of diagnosis of all diseases arising in the thymus remains x-rays because the ultrasound of this organ is quite difficult to perform. Additional information doctors receive consists of:
- Ultrasound of the heart and some other organs of the body.
- Immunogramme (analysis of the composition of the lymphocytes of the body).
- Studies hormonal.
- Analysis of blood and urine.
How to treat lesions of the thymus in adults
The disease the thymus gland may include one or more ways from the list below:
- Medication (corticosteroids and means to improve immunity).
- Surgical intervention (removal of the entire thymus gland, certain areas or tumors).
- Chemotherapy or radiation therapy (if cancer lesions).
- Diet (including a variety of food with a high content of vitamins C and b, zinc), which is a method not only of treatment, but effective prevention of diseases of the thymus.
Specific treatment regimen depends on the type of disease of the thymus gland/thymus and was appointed physician-immunologist or oncologist (in the case of cancer) only on the results of a thorough examination. All that can be done independently without the doctor’s recommendations – to improve nutrition and engage in healthy lifestyle in General. But at least some of the symptoms of diseases of the thymus in adults is to be able to recognize.